Mental Health and Substance Abuse Resource Guide
We are pleased to introduce the “Mental Health & Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Communities.” We hope this web-based resource, which was developed in collaboration with national AAPI organizations and community health centers, will provide you with easy access to existing resources on AAPI mental health and substance abuse.
Over the past several years, AAPCHO has through its Promoting Access To Healthcare (PATH) program, focused not only on raising awareness about mental health issues affecting AAPI communities, but on solutions that address these issues. Since 1999, AAPCHO has convened meetings/conferences that allow participants to discuss mental health issues and share resources, and developed resources for individuals/organizations that serve the mental health needs of AAPIs. This Resource Guide is another way in which AAPCHO is ensuring that organizations serving AAPIs are not only aware of the mental health resources that are available, but that they have easy access to these materials.
This resource guide was made possible with funding from the Office of Minority Health and support from SAMHSA Center for Mental Health Services. We acknowledge the following individuals and organizations for their support and guidance on this project:
- DJ Ida, National Asian American and Pacific Islander Mental Health Association (NAPIMHA)
- Ford Kuramoto, National Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA)
- Ho Tran, Asian Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF)
- Doua Thor, Southeast Asian Resource Action Center (SEARAC)
- Huy Bui, National Association of Vietnamese American Service Agencies (NAVASA)
- Cha Lee, Hmong National Development Inc. (HND)
- Juliet Choi, Asian American Justice Center
- Larke Huang, American Institute of Research
- Emily Ihara, the Office of Congressman Mike Honda
- Teddy Chen, Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in New York
- Albert Yeung, South Cove Community Health Center in Boston
- Steve Maxwell, Community-University Health Care Center in Minneapolis.
Documents on Culturally Competent Care
This section includes useful mental health/substance abuse-related documents issued by the federal government, as well as AAPI-specific resources that promote culturally competent mental health care and services.
Federal Documents and Resources
- President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health Report. Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. 2003 — In February 2001, President George W. Bush launched the New Freedom Initiative and created the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health to evaluate the mental health service delivery system. By Executive Order 13263, the Commission was tasked with identifying the problems and gaps in the current system, and recommending improvements.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity – A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2001 — This supplement, is an outgrowth of the Surgeon General’s first report on mental health and mental illness in 1999. This document was created to provide more in-depth information on the mental health disparities affecting racial and ethnic minorities, and to document promising strategies that eliminate these disparities.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institute of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. 1999 — This 1999 document is the Surgeon General’s first-ever report on mental health and mental illness. The Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health advances the important fact that mental health is fundamental to an individual’s overall health.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Report of a Surgeon General’s Working Meeting on the Integration of Mental Health Services and Primary Health Care: Held on November 30 – December 1, 2000 at the Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia. 2001 — This report contains the proceedings of the Surgeon General’s 2000 meeting to advance the integration of mental health services and primary health care. This report covers then Surgeon General David Satcher’s remarks, meeting highlights, and the core principles and strategies for national action.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A National Action Agenda. 2000 — This report introduces a blueprint to address children’s mental health needs. The report provides details of the meeting’s national action agenda to ensure that every child has an optimal chance for a healthy start in life.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cultural Competence Standards in Managed Care Mental Health Services: Four Underserved/Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Groups — This document provides standards to help guide the provision of culturally competent mental health services within the managed care environment for African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans/Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islander Americans.
- Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 — Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance. Information on Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency (Executive Order 13166) click here.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, OPHS, Office of Minority Health. National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care: Executive Summary. 2001 — In December 2000, the Office of Minority Health published the National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS Standards). These 14 standards provide a framework for building the cultural and linguistic competence necessary for home health care agencies.
- The Americans with Disabilities Act — The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications. This website provides information on federal civil rights laws, and links to agencies responsible for implementing the act.
- Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Mental Health Information Center — The National Mental Health Information Center was developed for users of mental health services and their families, and the general public. The site also includes information on federal, state, and local organizations dedicated to treating and preventing mental illness, material on federal grants, conferences, and other events.
Other Documents & Resources
- Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. 2003 — This document examines how racial and ethnic disparities in treatment may arise in health care systems, and analyzes patients and provider attitudes, expectations and behaviors that may contribute to such disparities. It also offers recommendations for eradicating disparities including language access, community-based care and cross-cultural education within the health professionals.
- Larke Nahme Huang, Center for Child Health and Mental Health Policy, Georgetown University & D.J. Ida, National Asian American Pacific Islander Mental Health Association. Promoting Positive Development and Preventing Youth Violence and High-Risk Behaviors in Asian American/Pacific Islander Communities: A Social Ecology Perspective. 2004 — This document attempts to provide a greater understanding of AAPI youth and families, the developmental and social challenges they face, the inherent strengths within their culture and communities, and strategies to prevent violence and other high risk behavior among this population.
- Larke Nahme Huang, Yuki Lee & Girlyn Arganza, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Promising Approaches in Youth Development and Risk Prevention for Asian American/Pacific Islander Youth: Voices from the Field. 2004 — This document highlights the developmental and social challenges facing AAPI youth, and effective community programs that meet the needs of these youth and their families.
- Task Panel Reports Submitted to the President’s Commission on Mental Health: “Report of the Special Populations on Mental Health of Asian/Pacific Americans,” February 1978 — This report, issued by the Special Populations Sub-panel: Mental Health of Asian/Pacific Americans, includes a discussion on the condition of AAPIs with respect to mental health, recommendations, and a statement regarding priorities for the AAPI population.
- Commission on Asian and Pacific Islander Affairs—“Rising to the Task: Facing New Challenges in California’s APIA Communities,” Annual Report. 2005 — This report of the Commission on Asian and Pacific Islander American Affairs (CAPIAA) provides an overview of the problem of gambling among AAPIs, commission-supported legislation related to this issue and activities for 2005.
- Addictive Behaviors — This document addresses the prevalence of addictive disorders such as gambling and alcohol and drug abuse among Asian Americans.
- Cultural Competence of Social Workers: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Professionals Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities — This document provides a review of available literature on alcohol and other drug abuse within specific AAPI subpopulations.
- Culturally Based Intervention for Substance Use and Child Abuse Among Native Hawaiians — This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally-based strategies for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families.
Best Practice and Service Models
This section highlights community mental health programs that integrate mental health services with primary health care, and that provide comprehensive services to newly arrived AAPI immigrants or refugees.
Community Health Center Programs
- Charles B. Wang Community Health Center Bridge Mental Health Program
Mental health services at the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in New York City are offered by the “Bridge” team, an innovative national model program that integrates mental health services with primary care. Established in 1997, this nationally recognized model has demonstrated success in providing access to mental health services and in reducing the stigma attached to receiving such services within the Chinese community.
- South Cove Community Health Center Behavioral Health Program
The Behavioral Health Department of South Cove Community Health Center provides services including psychiatric evaluation, psychopharmacological treatment, psychological testing, and counseling. The staff includes bilingual and bicultural psychiatrists, psychologists, and mental health counselors serving predominantly Chinese and Vietnamese Americans.
- Community-University Health Care Center Mental Health Program
Community-University Health Care Center (CUHCC) is a multidisciplinary safety net clinic serving uninsured and economically disadvantaged residents of South Minneapolis, MN. CUHCC uses a case manager-licensed provider team model to engage clients in holistic mental health care that integrates social services and clinical treatment. The case manager acts as a single point of entry to a continuum of comprehensive services, connecting clients to the resources they need.
Community Mental Health Programs
- The Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians (SEA) – Amherst H. Wilder Foundation
The SEA Program addresses mental health and social adjustment issues of Cambodian, Hmong, Vietnamese and Lao immigrants and refugees of the greater St. Paul metropolitan area. The program provides a variety of services to Southeast Asian youth and adults through bilingual and bicultural counselors trained in Western mental health practices. These services focus on families, youth and children, adults and groups with special needs or considerations.
Fact Sheets and Health Education Materials
This section includes fact sheets that provide data on AAPI mental health/substance abuse, as well as health education materials that educate our communities about mental health/substance abuse issues.
- NAPAFASA’s Fact Sheets on alcohol, tobacco and other drug use in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities (Revised 2007)
National Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA) is a private, non-profit, membership organization dedicated to addressing alcohol, tobacco, and other drug issues of (AAPI) populations on the continental U.S., Hawaii, and the Pacific Island jurisdictions.
- Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use Among Asian American High School Students in California: Findings from a 1995 Survey, September 2000
This report provides an analysis of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among Chinese American, Filipino American, Korean American, Vietnamese American, Asian Indian American, Pacific Islander American, and Japanese American high school students in California, based on findings from a 1995 survey.
- Fact Sheet: Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Alcohol Use, June 2005
This fact sheet includes, by sub-population, statistics on AAPI alcohol consumption. The sheet also compares alcohol consumption rates between AAPI immigrants and U.S.-born AAPI populations.
- Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Fact Sheet: Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPI), June 2005
This fact sheet includes statistics on AAPI alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by sub-population. The sheet also compares rates between AAPIs by age and immigration status.
- Fact Sheet: Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Illicit Drug Use, June 2005
This fact sheet includes, by sub-population, statistics on AAPI illicit drug use. This document also discloses problem areas and target populations abusing illicit drugs, such as marijuana and amphetamines, within the AAPI community.
- Fact Sheet: Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Tobacco Use, June 2005
This document provides statistics on AAPI tobacco use by sub-population, gender, level of English language proficiency, age, and immigration status.
- Multiracial Asian American and Pacific Islander Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Fact Sheet, February 2006
This document presents statistics on multiracial AAPI illicit drug use such as heroin and ecstasy, cigarette smoking, incidents of DUIs, and rates of suicidal tendencies.
- APPEAL’s Fact Sheets on AAPIs and Tobacco
This site provides facts and resources on AAPIs and tobacco, AAPI youth, AAPI LGBTQI, cessation, sponsorship, and tobacco settlement.
Health Education Materials
The New York State Office of Minority Health developed a Chinese version of SPEAK – Suicide Prevention Education Awareness Kit. SPEAK is an information kit for the public, health care providers and educators to help them understand the terrible frequency and toll of suicide, and to discover ways and methods to aid in preventing it.
- Healing the Spirit: Treatment of Depression Among the Asian Elderly, 2005 (Video)
The Asian Pacific Fund, a San Francisco-based foundation, produced this video (in DVD and VHS) to help families and caregivers learn about depression among the Asian elderly. This DVD is available in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Japanese, Korean, Cambodian, and Hindi.
- Asian Outlook Fall/Winter 2004 – Close-up Views of Mental Health and Immigration Issues
This issue of Asian Outlook, a publication of the Asian Pacific Fund focuses on two issues that dominate the needs of immigrant Bay Area Asians: mental health issues and the process of becoming a U.S. citizen.
- Brochures created by the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
These brochures provide educational information for parents on the health complications caused by the use of marijuana and inhalants. The brochures are available in Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino.
Articles, Bibliographies & Literature Databases
This section introduces a collection of recent research articles on AAPIs & mental health, as well as literature databases to aid users in their own research efforts.
- Chen, Hongtu, et al. (2003) Brief Report – The Emotional Distress in a Community After the Terrorist Arrack on the World Trade Center, Community Mental Health Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2, 157-165.
- Chen, Hongtu, et al. (2005) Practitioners’ Essay – The Bridge Program: A Model for Delivering Mental Health Services to Asian Americans through Primary Care, aapi nexus Vol. 3, No. 1, 1-17.
- Chung, Henry. (2002) Op-Ed – The challenges of providing behavioral treatment to Asian Americans: Identifying the challenges is the first step in overcoming them, West J Med, Vol. 176: 222-223.
- Takeuchi, David T, (2002) Mental health services research in Asian Americans: What do we know and where are we going?, West J Med, Vol. 176: 225-226.
- Kramer, Elizabeth J, Kwong, Kenny, Lee Evelyn, Chung, Henry. (2002) Culture and Medicine: Cultural factors influencing the mental health of Asian Americans, West J Med, Vol. 176: 227-231.
- Chung, Henry, Nguyen, Dustin, Gany, Francesca. (2002) Toolbox: Initial behavioral health assessment of Asian Americans, West J Med, Vol. 176: 233-238
- Chen, Jian-Ping, Chen, Hongtu, Albright, A Reese, Chung, Henry, Reich, Leonard, Ferran, Ernest Jr., Barron, Charles, Chen, Teddy, Foo, Sun-Hoo, Ury, Wayne. (2002) Best Practice: Case-Based Review, West J Med, Vol. 176: 239-253, 263-270.
- Chen, Jian-Ping, Barron, Charles, Lin, Keh-Ming, Chung, Henry, Ergil, Kevin V, Kramer, Elizabeth J, Ng Anthony T. (2002) Medicine Cabinet, West J Med, Vol. 176: 271-279.
- Yeung, Albert, et al. (2004) Integrating psychiatry and primary care improves acceptability to mental health services among Chinese Americans, General Hospital Psychiatry 26, 256-260.
- Yeung, Albert, et al. (2004) Prevalence of major depressive disorder among Chinese-Americans in primary care, General Hospital Psychiatry 26, 24-30.
- Yeung, Albert, et al. (2005) Prevalence and Illness Beliefs of Sleep Paralysis among Chinese Psychiatric Patients in China and the United States, Transcultural Psychiatry Vol. 42 (1): 135-145.
- Yeung, AS, He DJ. (2002) Somatoform Disorders in Primary Care, Western Journal of Medicine 176: 253-256.
- Yeung AS, Kam R. (2005) Illness beliefs of depressed Asian Americans in primary care, in Perspectives in cross-cultural psychiatry edited by Georgiopoulos AM & Rosenbaum JF. Lippinocott Williams & Wilkins, 21-36.
- Yeung AS, Neault N, Sonawalla S, Howarth S, Fava M, Nierenberg A. (2002) Screening for Major Depression in Asian-Americans: A Comparison of the Beck and the Chinese Depression Inventory, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia 105: 252-257.
- Yeung AS, Howarth S, Chan R, Sonawalla S, Nierenberg A, Fava M. (2002) Use of the Chinese Version of the Beck Depression Inventory for Screening Depression in Primary Care, J Nerv & Ment Dis; 190: 94-99.
Bibliographies & Literature Databases
- Annotated Bibliography on Cultural Psychiatry and Related Topics, 2005
Francis G. Lu, M.D., Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Director, Cultural Competence and Diversity Program, Department of Psychiatry, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco
- AAPI Health Literature Databases provided by AAPCHO
Compiled by AAPCHO, the sections on mental health and depression contain more than 100 recent articles relevant to the concerns of AAPIs and their mental well-being. The database includes articles specific to AAPIs, and touches on areas such as suicide and stress, schizophrenia and cognitive behavioral therapy.
Policy & Advocacy Organizations
This section lists organizations that promote culturally competent care and advance the well-being and mental health of individuals through policy-related and legislative activities. It also includes organizations that provide information on legislative issues.
- Asian American Justice Center (formerly National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium)
The Asian American Justice Center works to advance the human and civil rights of Asian Americans through advocacy, public policy, public education, and litigation. AAJC specializes in issues related to affirmative action, anti-Asian violence prevention/race relations, census, immigrant rights, language access, and voting rights.
- National Mental Health Association
The National Mental Health Association (NMHA) is the country’s oldest and largest nonprofit organization addressing mental health and mental illness. NMHA works to improve the mental health of all Americans, especially the 54 million individuals with mental disorders, through advocacy, education, research, and service.
- National Council on Interpreting in Health Care
The National Council on Interpreting in Health Care is a multidisciplinary organization whose mission is to promote culturally competent professional health care interpreting as a means of providing equal access to health care for limited English proficient individuals.
- American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents the discipline of psychology in the U.S. The objective of APA is to advance psychology as a science and profession, and as a means of promoting health, education, and public welfare.
- Congressional Research Service
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) provides the U.S. Congress with nonpartisan, objective analysis and research on all legislative issues.
AAPI National Organizations
This section includes AAPI national organizations who advocate on behalf of the health, economic, social, and civic health needs of AAPIs.
Mental Health & Health Advocacy Organizations
- National Asian American and Pacific Islander Mental Health Association (NAAPIMHA)
Founded in 2000, NAAPIMHA is one of few national organizations advocating on behalf of AAPI mental health and cultural competency issues. NAAPIMHA focuses on data collection; promotion of best practices and service models; technical assistance and capacity building for service providers; research and evaluation; and consumer and family engagement.
- National Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA)
NAPAFASA is a national organization that prevents and reduces substance abuse in Asian American, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islander families and communities through research, advocacy, education, and capacity building. Founded in 1988, NAPAFASA involves service providers, families, and youth in efforts to research AAPI communities to promote health and social justice and to reduce substance abuse and related problems.
- Asian Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF)
The mission of APIAHF is to enable Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders to attain the highest possible level of health and well-being. It envisions a multicultural society where AAPI communities are included and represented in health, political, social, and economic areas, and where there is social justice for all. The Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence is housed at APIAHF. It serves as a forum and clearinghouse of information and research regarding violence against women in AAPI communities.
- Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO)
AAPCHO is a national association dedicated to promoting advocacy, collaboration and leadership that improves the health status and access of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders within the United States, its territories and freely associated states, primarily through our member community health centers. Through its Promoting Access to Healthcare (PATH) Program, AAPCHO has issued the following mental health-related publications:
- Addressing the Nation’s Mental Health Issues for Asian American Communities: Three Mental Health Program Models, 2nd Edition. 2002
- Body and Soul: Mental Health for Asian Americans, Challenges and Perspectives, May 13-14, 2002 St. Paul Conference Proceedings. August 2002
- Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL)
APPEAL is a national network of organizations and individuals committed to working towards social justice and a tobacco-free Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. APPEAL’s mission is to prevent tobacco use and improve the health status in the AAPI community through network development, capacity building, education, advocacy, and leadership development.
Other Advocacy Organizations
- Southeast Asia Resource Action Center (SEARAC)
SEARAC, located in Washington D.C., is a national organization advancing the interests of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese Americans through leadership development, capacity building, and community empowerment. Founded in 1979, SEARAC carries out action-oriented research projects, and strengthens the capacity of community-based organizations such as mutual assistance associations (MAAs) and faith-based organizations (FBOs).
- Hmong National Development, Inc. (HND)
Located in Washington D.C., HND is a national non-profit organization that works with local and national organizations, public and private entities, and individuals to promote educational opportunities, increase community capacity, and develop resources for the well-being, growth, and full participation of Hmong in society. HND also partners with other AAPI national organizations to address Hmong health issues.