CBPR Toolkit

Author: AAPCHO, National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC)

Type:

Area:

Description:

AAPCHO is pleased to introduce its latest research toolkit! The Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): A Health Center Toolkit with Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA&NHOPI) orCBPR Toolkit” is a joint collaboration between AAPCHO and the National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC). It is intended as a handbook for community health centers (CHCs) and researchers interested in collaborative research activities.

We encourage you to send us your feedback or additional resources for this toolkit, as we will continually update and develop its usefulness to researchers and health centers with your contributions. To reach us, email AAPCHO at researchtoolkit@aapcho.org or NACHC at research@nachc.com.

You can also submit your feedback via our CBPR Toolkit Evaluation.

The CBPR Toolkit was sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIH NCMHD Grant #P60 MD000538-07S1) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services (Requisition #07R000132).

Background

Increasing calls for more comprehensive and participatory approaches to studying public health have led to the development of community-based models of research, in which communities actively and equitably engage in the research process. Carefully executed, Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) benefits not only researchers, but also the community under study by empowering it with the knowledge and tools to implement changes.

With that said, there is now a growing interest in conducting CBPR at health centers focused on medically underserved populations, such as Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders. From building ideas, to finding appropriate collaborators, to writing grant proposals, this extensive and evolving toolkit provides the resources health centers and researchers need to start a CBPR project and support the development, success, and sustainability of their projects together.

The Community-Based Participatory Research: A Health Center Toolkit with Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (CBPR E-Toolkit) contains an array of useful information for health centers and researchers, including:

  • Research Readiness Assessments
  • Steps to Building CBPR Partnerships and Trust
  • How to Develop a Memorandum of Understanding Between Partners
  • A Protocol for Submitting a Research Proposal Collaboratively
  • A Sample of a Funded Research Proposal

FAQs

What is the toolkit?
The toolkit is a collection of resources intended as a handbook for community health centers and researcher interested in collaborative research activities.

How often do you update the CBPR Toolkit?
We try to update this toolkit quarterly, at minimum every 6 months.

Is a hard copy or CD-rom of this CBPR Toolkit available?
Unfortunately, we are unable to offer with a hard copy or CD as the tool is constantly evolving with new resources added.

Is there a way to be notified when the toolkit is updated?
To be alerted of updates, please join our listserv by sending an email to researchtoolkit@aapcho.org.

Why aren’t articles directly linked to the source?
Most, if not all, articles cited are copyrighted material that we do not have permission to post directly. Some articles may be offered free through PubMed or Google Scholar. For those that are not available, many academic institutions and public libraries offer free access to these journals.

What is CBPR?

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is, “a collaborative approach to research that equitably involves all partners in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. CBPR begins with a research topic of importance to the community with the aim of combining knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and eliminate health disparities.” (W.K. Kellogg Foundation’s Community Health Scholars Program, 2001) CBPR relies on “trust, cooperation, dialogue, community capacity building, and collaborative inquiry toward its goal of improving health and well-being.” (Minkler and Wallerstein, 2003)

 

General Information

  • Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz AJ, Parker EA (eds). Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. 2005; San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. — This text provides comprehensive examinations of CBPR study designs, data collection and analysis methods, and innovative partnership structures and process methods.

CBPR for Health Centers

  • Fried RA. Research in Community Health Centers. 1998; National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc. — This monograph provides a brief introduction to primary care research in community health centers.
  • National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc. Research in Health Centers: How to Get Started. 1998. Presentation File (Part 1)(Part 2). — These materials were developed as part of an one-day seminar on beginning or enhancing research programs at community health centers.

CBPR for Academics

Getting Started in CBPR

Introduction

  • Fried RA. Research in Community Health Centers. 1998; National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc. — This monograph provides a brief introduction to primary care research, as opposed to CBPR, in community health centers.

Developing & Maintaining Partnerships

General Information

  • Developing and Sustaining Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum (2006) (Part 1) (Part 2) — This curriculum is an educational resource developed by the Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) for national organizations, funding agencies, researchers. It provides an introduction to the practice of community-based participatory research for improving health. For the most updated curriculum, visit: www.cbprcurriculum.info. Authors: Jen Kauper-Brown, Sarena D. Seifer, Kari Hartwig, Diane Calleson, Maurice Williams, Sarah Flicker, Kirsten Senturia, Kristine Wong, Ann-Gel Palermo, Robert McGranaghan, Robb Travers, Ella Greene-Moton

Sample Tools

  • Letter of Agreement and Scope of Work — This document provides a template on how to lay out the terms and conditions between two organizations, and how to outline services and materials in the scope of work.
  • CHC Research Collaboration Questionnaire – Asian Health Services (AHS) — This document provides helpful questions for community organizations to ask of other organizations wishing to collaborate with them to better understand the goals and terms of collaboration.
  • Data Request Form – Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC) — This document is a useful tool for organizations to better understand the specific data elements and formats that are being requested of them.
  • Sample Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) — These documents are examples of MOUs developed by Community-Academic Partnerships in conducting community-based participatory research. Samples include “Promoting Breast Health Information in Chinese and Filipinos” and “Friendly Access.”
  • More Sample Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) — Collected by Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH), these documents are more examples of MOUs and MOAs (Memorandums of Agreement) developed for an array of partnerships.
  • Giachello AL, author; Ashton D, Kyler P, Rodriguez ES, Shanker R, Umemoto A, eds. 2007. Making Community Partnerships Work: A Toolkit. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Foundation. — This toolkit provides strategies and tools, such as research readiness checklists, sample forms and case stories, based on lessons learned from the national and community partners involved in the Genetics Education Needs Evaluation (GENE) Project, a cooperative agreement between the March of Dimes and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).
  • Sample Statement of Work This document is a statement of work for a study entitled, “Garlic and the Prevention of Cancer” between a community health center and an academic institution. This sample provides language and structure for upon which to build.
  • Sample MOU — This MOU example highlights the relationship between an organization and community coalition.

Funding

Ethical Review and Considerations

General Information

  • Participation in Clinical Research Involving Human Subjects. 2002; Bethesda, MD. — This advisory discusses certain legal issues and policy considerations that a health center should address before conducting research involving human subjects. Author: National Association of Community Health Centers

IRB/Ethics Tools and Training

  • Protecting Human Subjects Training. HRSA — This video training offers information on protecting the rights and welfare of human participants in research studies, including historical background information, case studies, information on the role of an Institutional Review Board and ethics. This is especially useful for organizations going through IRB approval.

Examples of CHC CBPR Activities

Articles/Presentations

  • Gardner, R. Hand in Hand: Using Research Dollars to Support HIT and HIT to Support Research Activities. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute. — Presented at a session highlighting experiences with funded research to help offset costs of innovations supported by Electronic Health Record systems, this presentation shares the processes, successes, and lessons learned of a South Carolina research collaborative of CHCs in utilizing Health Information Technology to measure prostate cancer encounters.
  • Ybarra V, Postma J. El Proyecto Bienestar: An Authentic CBPR Partnership in Yakima Valley. Partnership Perspectives. 2007; IV:I. Seattle, WA: 34-43. — This article introduces El Proyecto Bienestar, the Well-Being Project. It is a prime example of how a community health center, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic (YVFWC), partners with academia for a strong CBPR collaboration.
  • Gardner R. Untitled. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute. — This presentation shares some of the health information technology research that Beaufort-Jasper Hampton Comprehensive Health Services in South Carolina has conducted along with many lessons learned.
  • Hauser D. Using EHRs to Advance Research in Community Health Centers. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute. — The Institute for Family Health demonstrates how electronic health records (EHR) data alerted them to diabetes disparities and led to subsequent research projects at the health centers.
  • Oneha MF. Building a Research Infrastructure at Your Health Center. 2009; Presented at the National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute. — This presentation discusses the various elements of Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center’s research infrastructure and how they came to be.

Methodological Issues and Data Collection

General Information

  • Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz AJ, Parker EA (eds). Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. 2005; San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. — This text provides comprehensive examinations of CBPR study designs, data collection and analysis methods, and innovative partnership structures and process methods.

Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language

  • Wendler D, Kington R, Madans J, Van Wye G, Christ-Schmidt H, Pratt LA, et al. Are Racial and Ethnic Minorities Less Willing to Participate in Health Research? PLoS Med. 2006; 3(2):e19. — This article finds that African-Americans and Hispanics are no less willing to participate in health research than non-Hispanic whites. Further, it suggests we focus on ensuring equal access to health research for all groups.

Evaluations

  • Butterfoss FD. Process Evaluation for Community Participation. Annual Review of Public Health. 2006; 27:323-40. — This article examines the importance of process evaluation to examine community participation’s role in health and social change outcomes.
  • Health Outreach Partners (formerly Farmworker Health Service, Inc). Data Collection Tools for Evaluation. — This easy-to-read table offers various evaluation mechanism definitions, benefits, and limitations.
  • Sim S-C. Why Should Nonprofits Care? The Journal for Nonprofit Managers. 2009; 21(6): 1-5. — This article discusses the importance of evaluations to an organization’s work.

Sample Tools

  • Urban Institute: Research Toolkit — This toolkit, developed by the Urban Institute, provides an introduction to various qualitative and quantitative methods for implementing and evaluating research. It includes definitions and samples for methods such as focus groups, interviews, cost-benefit analysis, and regressions.
  • Data Request Form – Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC) — This document is a useful tool for organizations to better understand the specific data elements and formats that are being requested of them.

Publishing

Resources

  • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Community Health Status Indicators. — This site creates allows you to search for health statistics at the county level on various measures.
  • Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research. Prim&r’s Am&rpsand Blog — This blog spotlights those advancing high ethical standards in their research.
  • Education Network to Advance Cancer Clinical Trials (ENACCT).“Your Role in Cancer Clinical Trials.” 2010. — Three one-hour e-learning courses developed by the Education Network to Advance Cancer Clinical Trials (ENACCT) to help advocates, providers, and patients learn more about the promotion and discussion of treatment options, especially cancer clinical trials for minorities and the medically underserved.

Building a National Health Center Research Agenda

Websites

Listservs (Under Construction)

AA&NHOPI Demographic and Health Characteristics in the U.S.

  • Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AA&NHOPIs in the U.S. 2010; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. — This fact sheet provides key statistics for the AA&NHOPIs in the United States.
  • Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Limited English Proficiency (LEP). 2005; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. — This fact sheet gives an overview of AAPIS with limited English proficiency in the United States. 

Improving Quality of Health Care and Growing Opportunities for AA&NHOPIs

Additional Resources

  • Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Health Data Database. 2009; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. — AAPCHO offers a preliminary directory of AA & NHOPI public use health data and references on an array of topics and conditions. 
  • Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Health Literature Database. 2009; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. — AAPCHO offers a preliminary list of AA&NHOPI literature citations, comprised of over 900 books, journal articles, and reports, highlighting important factors impacting AA&NHOPI health. 
  • Harborview Medical Center. EthnoMed. 2010; Harborview Medical Center: Seattle, WA. — EthnoMed shares information about cultural beliefs, medical issues, and other topics pertinent to the health care of immigrant and refugee populations served in Seattle and the United States.
  • Panapasa S. Social, Demographic, and Cultural Characteristics of Pacific Islanders. In: Trinh-Shevrin C, Islam NS, Rey MJ. Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2009: 50-72. — This chapter provides us with greater understanding about the intricacies of social, demographic and cultural characteristics of Pacific Islanders.

Appendix - References

  1. AHRQ Activities Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Health Care Disparities. 2009. AHRQ Pub. No. 09-P012.
  2. American’s Health Insurance Plans. Tools to Address Disparities in Health: Data as Building Blocks for Changes. 2005; Washington, D.C.
  3. Amzel A, Ghosh C. National Newspaper Coverage of Minority Health Disparities. Journal of the National Medical Association 2007; 99(10): 1-6.  Available at http://www.nempha.org/National%20news%20coverage.pdf Accessed February 25, 2008.
  4. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. Diverse Communities Diverse Experiences: The Status of Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders in the U.S. (A Review of Six Socioeconomic Indicators and Their Impact on Health). 2005.  APIAHF: San Francisco, CA.
  5. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy. Growing Opportunities: Will Funding Follow the Rise in Foundation Assets and Growth of AAPI Populations? 2007; AAPIP: San Francisco, CA. Available at http://www.aapip.org/pdfs/AAPIP-GOpps4WWW.pdf Accessed February 25, 2008.
  6. Asian Health Services. CHC Research Collaboration Questionnaire.
  7. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AA&NHOPIs in the U.S. Fact Sheet. 2010. AAPCHO: Oakland, CA.
  8. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Fact Sheet. 2005. AAPCHO: Oakland, CA.
  9. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Health Data Database. 2009; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. Available at: http://www.aapcho.org/site/aapcho/section.php?id=10973
  10. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. AAPI Health Literature Database. 2009; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA. Available at: http://www.aapcho.org/site/aapcho/section.php?id=10974
  11. Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations & National Association of Community Health Centers. Health Centers’ Role in Reducing Health Disparities Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. 2005; AAPCHO: Oakland, CA; NACHC: Washington, DC.
  12. Barnes PM, Adams PF, Powell-Griner E. Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States, 2004-2006.  Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics. 2008; No. 394.
  13. Bolin JN. Community-Based Participatory Research – Assessing a Community’s Health Status Using Readily Available Secondary Data. 2007; Presentation file.
  14. Bordeaux BC, Wiley C, Tandon SD, Horowitz CR, Brown PB, Bass EB. Guidelines for Writing Manuscripts About Community-Based Participatory Research for Peer-Reviewed Journals. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action. 2007; 1(3): 281-8.
  15. Braunstein JB, Sherber NS, Schulman SP, Ding EL, Powe NR. Race, Medical Researcher Distrust, Perceived Harm, and Willingness to Participate in Cardiovascular Prevention Trials. Medicine. 2008; 81(1): 1-9.
  16. Butterfoss FD. Process Evaluation for Community Participation. Annual Review of Public Health. 2006; 27:323-40.
  17. Calman NS, Kitson K, Hauser D. Using Information Technology to Improve Health Quality and Safety in Community Health Centers. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Actions. 2007; 1(1): 83-8.
  18. CDC Prevention Research Center. Partnership Trust Tool. 2009. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/prc/program-material/partnership-trust-tools.htm. Accessed: July 6, 2010.
  19. Changes in NIH Grant Application Procedure. NIH Center for Scientific Review. 2009.
  20. Chen MS Jr, Hawks BL. A Debunking of the Myth of Healthy Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Am J Health Prom. 1995; 9(4):261-8.
  21. Chien AT, Walters AE, and Chin MH. Community Health Center Quality Improvement: A Systematic Review and Future Directions for Research. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 2007; 1(1): 105-116.
  22. Chin M. Community-based participatory research: practical tips for CHCs and Researchers. 2006. Presentation file.
  23. Common Mistakes in NIH applications  National Institutes of Health. 2005.
  24. Community Campus Partnership for Health. MOUs/MOAs. 2010. Available at: http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/commbas.html#MOU. Accessed: July 6, 2010.
  25. Community Campus Partnerships for Health. Principles and Policies of CBPR. 2010. Available at: http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/commbas.html#Principles. Accessed: July 6, 2010.
  26. Davis RM, Hitch AD, Nichols M, Rizci A, Salaam M, Mayer-Davis EJ. A Collaborative Approach to the Recruitment and Retention of Minority Patients with Diabetes in Rural Community Health Centers. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009; 30(1): 63-70.
  27. Eder M. The Starting Point for Research: Building a Research Infrastructure at Access Community Health Network. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  28. Education Network to Advance Cancer Clinical Trials (ENACCT).”Your Role in Cancer Clinical Trials.” 2010.
  29. Flicker S, Travers R, Guta A, McDonald S, Meagher A. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine. 2007; 84(4): 469-71.
  30. Freeman ER. Health Services and Clinical Research with Community Health Centers to Eliminate Health Disparities in Underserved Populations. 2007; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  31. Freeman ER. Health Services and Clinical Research with Community Health Centers to Eliminate Health Disparities in Underserved Populations. 2007; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  32. Frick K, Shi L, Gaskin DJ. Level of Evidence of the Value of Care in Federally Qualified Health Centers for Policy Making. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action. 2007; 1(1): 75-82.
  33. Fried RA. Research in Community Health Centers. 1998; National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc.
  34. Gardner R. Untitled. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  35. Ghosh C. Healthy People 2010 and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders: Defining a Baseline of Information. American Journal of Public Health. 2003; 93(12): 2093-8.
  36. Giachello AL, author; Ashton D, Kyler P, Rodriguez ES, Shanker R, Umemoto A, eds. 2007. Making Community Partnerships Work: A Toolkit. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Foundation.
  37. Gil EF, Bob S. Culturally Competent Research: An Ethical Perspective. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19(1): 45-55.
  38. Harborview Medical Center. Ethnomed. 2010; Harborview Medical Center: Seattle, WA.
  39. Hasnain-Wynia R, Pierce D, Haque A, Hedges Greising C, Prince V, Reiter J.  Health Research and Educational Trust Disparities Toolkit. 2007. Available at: hretdisparities.org. Accessed February 25, 2008.
  40. Hasnain-Wynia R., Pierce D, and Pittman MA. Who, When, and How: The Current State of Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language Data Collection in Hospitals. 2004; The Commonwealth Fund.
  41. Hauser D. Using EHRs to Advance Research in Community Health Centers. 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  42. Health Outreach Partners (formerly Farmworker Health Service, Inc). Data Collection Tools for Evaluation.
  43. Health Research & Educational Trust. Issue Brief: Collection of Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language Data: Tools to Improve Quality of Care and Reduce Health Care Disparities. 2005.
  44. Health Research & Educational Trust. Presentation to Staff: Nuts and Bolts of Collecting Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language Information from Patients. 2007.
  45. Health Resources and Services Administration. Cultural Competency and Health Literacy Resources for Health Care Providers. Available at: http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/
  46. HRSA. Human Subjects Research: Protecting Human Subjects Training. Available at: http://www.hrsa.gov/humansubjects/ Accessed July 6, 2010.
  47. Hughes DL. Quality of Health Care for Asian Americans: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund 2001 Health Care Quality Survey. Pub # 525. 2002; The Commonwealth Fund. Available at http://www.naapimha.org/issues/CommonwealthHealthcare.pdf Accessed February 25, 2008.
  48. Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. 2002; The National Academies Press: Washington, DC.
  49. Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz AJ, Parker EA (eds). Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA; 2005.
  50. Israel BA, Schulz AJ, Parker EA, Becker AB. Review of Community-Based Research: Assessing Partnership Approaches to Improve Public Health. Annual Review of Public Health. 1998; 10: 173-202.
  51. Jones L, Wells K. Strategies for Academic and Clinician Engagement in Community-Participatory Partnered Research. JAMA. 2007; 297(4): 407-10.
  52. Kipnis K. Vulnerability in Research Subjects: A Bioethical Taxonomy. Available at http://www.onlineethics.org/cms/8087.aspx Accessed February 25, 2008.
  53. Louie KB. White Paper on the Health Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and Recommendations for Research. Nurs Outlook. 2001; 49: 173-8.
  54. Master Clinical Trial Agreement.
  55. Minkler M, Blackwell AG, Thompson M, Tamir H. Community-based participatory research: Implications for public health funding. Am J Public Health. 2003; 93:1210-3.
  56. Minkler M, Wallerstein N (eds). Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: From Process to Outcomes, 2nd Edition. 2008; San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  57. National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc. Research in Health Centers: How to Get Started. 1998. Presentation File.
  58. National Association of Community Health Centers. Participation in Clinical Research Involving Human Subjects. 2002; Bethesda, MD.
  59. NIH Center for Scientif Review. What Happens to Your Grant Application: A Primer for New Applicants. NIH. 2007.
  60. NIH Center for Scientific Review. Grant Application Submission and Review: Useful Web Links. NIH.
  61. NIH Insider’s Guide to Peer Review for Applicants.  NIH Center for Scientific Review. 2008.
  62. Norris KC, Brusuelas R, Jones L, Miranda J, Duru OK, Mangione CM. Partnering with Community-Based Organizations: An Academic Institution’s Evolving Perspective. Ethn Dis. 2007; 17(1 Suppl 1): S27-32.
  63. Oneha MF. Building a Research Infrastructure at Your Health Center. 2009; Presented at the National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  64. Oneha MF. Community Health Centers: Why Engage in Research? 2010. Draft.
  65. Panapasa S. Social, Demographic, and Cultural Characteristics of Pacific Islanders. In: Trinh-Shevrin C, Islam NS, Rey MJ. Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2009: 50-72.
  66. Proser M, Aaron KF, Meyers D, Cornell C. Building a Research Agenda for Community Health Centers and the Medically Underserved: Meeting Proceedings. The John Hopkins University Press. 2007; 1(1):67-73.
  67. Proser M, et al. Building a Research Agenda for Community Health Centers and the Medically Underserved: Meeting Proceedings.  The Johns Hopkins University Press 2007; 1(1): 67-73. Available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/progress_in_community_health_partnerships_research_education_and_action/v001/1.1proser.pdf Accessed February 25, 2008.
  68. Proser M. Health Centers & the Medically Underserved: Building a Research Agenda. 2006; Presented at NACHC CHI 2006.
  69. Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research. Prim&r’s Am&rpsand Blog. Available at: http://primr.blogspot.com. Accessed July 6, 2010.
  70. Reid CE, Brief E, LeDrew R. Our Common Ground: Cultivating Women’s Health Through Community-Based Research. 2009; Vancouver: Women’s Health Research Network.
  71. Sample Memorandum of Agreement between Academia and Community Health Center.
  72. Sample Memorandums of Understanding (MOU)
  73. Sample Statement of Work.
  74. Schoultz J, Oneha MF, Magnussen L, Hla MM, Brees-Saunders Z, Dela Cruz M, Douglas M. Finding Solutions to Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research Between Academic and Community Organizations (2006). Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2006; 20(2):133-44.
  75. Sim S-C. Why Should Nonprofits Care? The Journal for Nonprofit Managers. 2009; 21(6): 1-5.
  76. Southern Illinois Practice Research Organization. A collaborative Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). 2009; Presented at National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  77. Strasburger JF. Meeting the Research Infrastructure Needs of Micropolitan and Rural Communities. WMJ. 2009;108(3):133-8.
  78. Sussman AL, Rivera M. ‘Be Gentle and Be Sincere About It’: A Story About Community-Based Primary Care Research. Annals of Family Medicine. 2008; 6(5); 463-4.
  79. The Examining Community-Institutional Partnerships for Prevention Research Group. Developing and Sustaining Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum 2006; Available at http://www.cbprcurriculum.info/ Accessed February 25, 2008.
  80. Tobin JN. Community-Based Models of Research: Views from the Health Center. 2007; Presented at the National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute
  81. Two Feathers K, Kieffer EC, Palmisano G, Anderson M, et al. Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Detroit Partnership: Improving Diabetes-Related Outcomes Among African-American and Latino Adults. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95(9):1552-60.
  82. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Community Health Status Indicators. Available at; http://communityhealth.hhs.gov/HomePage.aspx?GeogCD=&PeerStrat=&state=&county=. Accessed July 6, 2010.
  83. Urban Institute. Researcher Toolkit: Data Methods. Available at: http://www.urban.org/toolkit/data-methods/index.cfm. Accessed July 6, 2010.
  84. Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC). Data Request Form. 2003.
  85. Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC). Institutional Review Board (IRB) Scientific Review Checklist.
  86. Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC). Sample Grant Application. 2006.
  87. Wallerstein NB, Duran B. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Health Disparities. Health Promotion Practice. 2006; 7(3): 312-23.
  88. Wang C, Burris MA. Photovoice: Concept, Methodology, and Use for Participatory Needs Assessment. Health Education & Behavior. 1997; 24: 369-87.
  89. Weijer C, Goldsand G, Emanuel E. Protecting Communities in Research: Current Guidelines and Limits of Extrapolation. Nature Genetics. 1999; 23(3):275-80.
  90. Weijer C. Protecting Communities in Research: Philosophical and Pragmatic Challenges. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 1999; 8: 501-13.
  91. Wendler D, Kington R, Madans J, Van Wye G, Christ-Schmidt H, Pratt LA, et al. Are Racial and Ethnic Minorities Less Willing to Participate in Health Research? PLoS Med. 2006; 3(2):e19.
  92. Williams D. The Monitoring of Racial/Ethnic Status in the USA: Data Quality Issues. Ethnicity & Health 1999; 4(3): 121-137.
  93. Wong K. Community-Based Participatory Research and Community Health Centers. 2006; Presented at the National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.
  94. Ybarra V, Postma J. El Proyecto Bienestar: An Authentic CBPR Partnership in Yakima Valley. Partnership Perspectives. 2007; IV:I. Seattle, WA: 34-43.
  95. Ybarra V. CHC Research Involvement: Developing a Mutually Beneficial Relationship. 2006; Presented at the National Association of Community Health Centers, Community Health Institute.

Appendix - Glossary of Terms

  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Glossary of Terms – A glossary of terms provided by AHRQ used in Comparative Effectiveness Research.
  2. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms – A glossary of many of the common terms used in clinical trials.
  3. AcademyHealth Health Services Research (HSR) Methods Glossary – A glossary providing terms and synonyms of terms used across disciplines that comprise HSR.